Everything you need to know for a happy life with your baby Mon, 21 Feb 2011 18:31:03 +0000 en hourly 1 Nappy rash or how to protect baby skin Mon, 21 Feb 2011 18:31:03 +0000 admin Signs of nappy rash include redness and swelling of inguinal skin folds, buttocks and perineum, as well as rash blisters and peeling in these areas and are found in 58% of infants. Some moms associate such reaction of baby sensitive skin with diapers. However, the name of this condition appeared long before invention of disposable diapers.

Wet diapers are main baby enemies, while nappies help solving the problem. Nevertheless, they help only partly, as we deal not only with damp cloth contact, but also a baby allergic disposition, indigestion, artificial feeding - factors that create a predisposition to diaper dermatitis or nappy rash. The disease brings trouble to kids of 6-12 months, with girls more often than boys.

Delicate and thin baby skin is vulnerable to adverse effects. The slightest lapse in care - and problem areas are covered with ominous red spots, a child becomes moody, restless and is constantly crying. Taking action in the beginning, you can get rid of nappy rash for 2-3 days. But if you ignore the problem, worries and troubles will turn your life into a nightmare! Buy special baby cream, powder or lotion for problem skin, prone to inflammatory reactions. Do not leave a baby in wet diapers and change them timely.

Employees of the Institute of Pediatrics in collaboration with foreign colleagues from Germany, Spain and the UK compared different diapers effects on children’s skin. They selected 250 children from 1 to 18 months, applied gauze diapers during 7 days, and then used disposable diapers for half children.

Their skin condition was much better than that of babies left in fabric nappies. After all, even best fabric cannot stay dry after it absorbed moisture. That is why they created diapers with absorbent material inside, which links liquid and forms gel. True, protection of disposable diapers may not work, if you use them the wrong way.

Change them before and after sleep, walk, feeding and, of course, every time a child evacuates. Throwing away old diaper, leave a kid naked for at least 5 minutes. This way his skin will breathe for a while. Keep in mind such feature: not every diaper suitable in size fits a baby in absorbency. And of course, do not use small diapers, even if you bought too much of them.

Another tip: Avoid applying too much cream or other means against nappy rash on baby skin, as well as packing a baby in a diaper immediately. Cream needs time to be absorbed, otherwise it will score pores in a diaper and reduce its ability to absorb moisture, thus only worsening skin problems.

Baby Fever and Temperature Mon, 21 Feb 2011 17:37:48 +0000 admin Fever is a frequent symptom of childhood ailments. Does it always require treatment? Which methods of subduing fever cause less harm to a child body?

Any doctor will say: in case thermometer shows less than 38 C, fever should not be subdued. After all, fever indicates child body is fighting against infection. Hyperthermia (high temperature) causes production of substances that neutralize viruses, firstly - interferon. The peak of interferon production comes to the 2nd-3rd days of illness, and if one does not interfere with the body, SARS successfully disappears in three days.

When a loving mom becomes panic-stricken and subdues temperature at already 37.5 C, the disease can last for a week or two! However, if a baby temperature is above thirty-eight, you should take action. Of course, all children are different: one endures 39.0 C calmly and the other may lose consciousness at thirty-seven.

Drugs to help

It is believed children under 14 years should not be given antipyretics based on aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid). This component provokes bleeding. According to some studies, aspirin can cause brain and liver damage in children. Also, doctors do not recommend subduing temperature with analginum because of its toxic effect on the body.

If your doctor does not mind, you can give a child medicine containing paracetamol. Please note: the effect of antipyretic agents in the form of suppositories is longer than that of drugs in the form of suspensions or tablets. Anti-fever syrup starts action within 20 minutes after ingestion, suppositories - within 30-40 minutes. If you are used to subdue baby fever with syrup, choose the one not containing dyes and fragrances: they can cause allergy. Before taking this or that medication, always consult your physician.

What to do

Wipe baby’s body with a damp sponge right in a bed. You can use vinegar solution (vinegar mixed with water 1:1). Ensure a baby drinks much liquid, intake rate should exceed usual by 20-30%. Do not wrap a baby up: put on light pajamas and cover a baby with a thin blanket or bed sheet.

Avoid feeding a child by force, let him choose what he want to eat. If a baby has severe headache, you can put ice wrapped in a towel or diaper on his forehead. And remember: no drugs, no wiping reduce baby fever to a normal temperature. If he had a temperature of 39.5 C, it will drop no lower than to 38 C.

If your child has at least one of the following symptoms, call your doctor immediately!  Urgent medical assistance is necessary, when:

- Dehydration: hollow eyes, decreased urination or dry diapers, hollow fontanelle in children under one year, no tears when crying, dry mucous membrane in mouth, dry tongue, severe drowsiness or unusual excitement, characteristic unpleasant odor from mouth.
- Cramps, purple rash or bruised eyes.
- Apathy, drowsiness, lack of response to attempts to wake a baby.
- Severe headache that cannot be relieved by analgesics and antipyretics.
- Persistent vomiting or uncontrollable diarrhea (more than 3-4 times).

Is Jennifer Lopez getting more in vitro procedure? Sat, 26 Dec 2009 22:00:00 +0000 admin http://localhost/wordpress/articles/399.html Jennifer Lopez has been dealt another crushing blow in her quest for motherhood.

The 36-year-old Latin beauty underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) with a Beverly Hills specialist in mid-October - only to get the heartbreaking news from an ultrasound earlier this month that the procedure had failed.

But Jennifer’s so determined to have a baby with her husband, singer Marc Anthony, that she’s going to undergo the grueling procedure again, says a source close to the star.

“She’s tried everything else without success, and though IVF has failed once, she knows it’s the only hope left for her to get pregnant,” said the source.

“Marc is supporting Jennifer all the way. He knows how much she wants to be a mother.”

Ectopic pregnancy Thu, 15 Oct 2009 11:10:00 +0000 admin Ectopic pregnancy is a rare pathologic process of fetus development outside the uterus. Ectopic pregnancy is a threat to a woman’s life, because it is accompanied by the risk of tissue rupture and bleeding. Learn more about ectopic pregnancy signs and symptoms, as well as possible risk factors.

Ectopic pregnancy

In rare cases, the fertilized egg is not implanted in the uterus, but beyond. In most such cases, the egg is implanted in the fallopian (uterine) tubes, rarely in the ovary, and sometimes in the abdominal cavity. Ectopic or tubal pregnancy is the most serious gynecological disease that requires urgent medical intervention.

If the embryo is implanted outside the uterine cavity, there is not enough space, nor necessary means of nutrition for its growth and development. Fallopian tubes are too narrow for a rapidly growing fetus, so there is a risk of damage and rupture. The rapid growth of the embryo can rupture the organ in which it is implanted, which causes profuse bleeding. This endangers a pregnant woman’s life.

The probability of tubal ectopic pregnancy

Women that were taking means to improve fertility and stimulate ovulation have a higher risk of ectopic tubal pregnancy. Pelvic inflammatory disease in the past also increases the risk of ectopic pregnancy, because of inflammation there may appear adhesions on fallopian tubes, and passing through them can be difficult. This may prevent a fertilized egg from moving to the uterus. Any surgery on the fallopian tubes or pregnancy after tubal ligation increases the risk of ectopic pregnancy. Endometriosis is another risk factor for ectopic pregnancy.

Symptoms of ectopic pregnancy

It is often difficult to recognize ectopic pregnancy symptoms at an early stage. Sharp stabbing pain in the abdomen or pelvis - this is the first sign of probable ectopic pregnancy. Other symptoms: low blood pressure, dizziness or fainting.

Vaginal bleeding - another common symptom of ectopic pregnancy. If you notice one or more of the above symptoms, you should immediately contact a doctor, because internal bleeding is possible. Fallopian tubes rupture may be accompanied by bleeding, causing unbearable pain and scar tissue formation. This can affect a woman’s reproductive health and complicate a future pregnancy.

Diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy is usually diagnosed on 8 - 10 weeks of pregnancy. Future placenta, from the first day of its existence, secretes a specific chorionic hormone that blocks function of ovaries to develop the next egg, thus preventing a secondary pregnancy. Often ectopic pregnancy can be diagnosed through chorionic hormone and progesterone content in blood. As a rule, in case of tubal pregnancy, chorionic hormone level in blood decreases. Ultrasonography of the pelvis will show the exact location of fetus and presence of ectopic pregnancy.

Laparoscopy also helps to determine the precise location of tubal pregnancy. If ectopic pregnancy does not end with an arbitrary miscarriage, they use certain drugs to remove placenta, for example, methotrexate. This treatment should be applied only when ectopic pregnancy is diagnosed at an early period. Surgical intervention is used when ectopic pregnancy has already gone far enough.

Baby bathing tips: infant bath temperature Tue, 15 Sep 2009 11:46:24 +0000 admin Many latter-day parents are experiencing some difficulties in the first baby bathing, because they do not know what to do with this and which infant bath temperature to choose. In fact, at first, the process of bathing may seem rather complicated, and parents need special attention. It is at first, when you must be extremely careful to avoid the most common mistakes. Once you get used to it, you and your baby will truly enjoy the process of bathing!

Here are 10 basic tips for bathing infants and infant bath temperature:

1. Never leave your baby alone in the bath. This is of particular importance. There should be no fuss and make sure you are not distracted. Even if someone calls you in the door or by phone, do not leave the bathroom, just do not pay any attention to it. If necessary, wrap a child in a thick towel and take with you, but never leave him unattended.

2. Infant bath temperature should be around 36-38 degrees Celsius. Most infants prefer cooler water than adults, so it is best to use a thermometer to make sure the water temperature is suitable for your baby. If you use automatic water heater, check the temperature setting twice. Maximum infant bath temperature can be 45 degrees Celsius. Also, if you mix hot and cold water, make sure the result is a desired water temperature.

3. Fill the tub for baby bathing no more than 10 cm deep. Although the amount of water will seem too small, it is quite enough to bathe a baby. Remember that too much water can be dangerous for a baby, so do not risk.

4. Remember that it is very slippery in the bath, so you will need to prevent baby sliding inside of it in advance. This can be achieved due to a special mat on the bottom of the tub. At the same time, your hands will be free, and you will not have to always hold a baby.

5. Prepare everything you need in advance, namely:

- Two dry and warm towels;

- A soft sponge;

- Ph-neutral soap for babies;

- Clean clothes;

6. Pay attention to the metal drain hole. It is best to put on a special coating on it. You can purchase it at any children’s store.

7. Do not overdo with the use of soap and shampoo. It is important to use soap and shampoo, designed for infants, and in some cases it is better not to use neither one nor the other. Also, never wash a baby’s face with soap - it is enough to wash it simply with warm water.

8. Make sure your baby is unable to reach the faucet. Sometimes, it might seem it is difficult enough to open the valve with water, but it may be quite different, and this may lead to unintended consequences.

9. It is always better to bathe a baby with a partner, relative or friend. This helps expediting the process of bathing and make it more secure.

10. Remember, there is no need to bath your baby too often. Newborn babies should be bathed about once every three days.

Christening. What you should know Tue, 15 Sep 2009 11:15:05 +0000 admin For Orthodox christening  is the second (but in a sense, the main) spiritual birth of a man, his cleaning for further existance, a sort of “pass” to heaven - the kingdom of God. After christening a person receives forgiveness of past sins. That is why christening is the first sacrament, and necessary for every man who seeks salvation and the meaning of life.


Who are godparents?

Sacrament of christening is a special ceremony. This is cleansing of the soul and spiritual birth of man. By tradition, the church should baptize a baby on the eighth or fortieth day of life. Clearly, in this age requiring faith and repentance - the two main conditions for union with God is impossible. Therefore, there are godparents appointed, who are committed to educate godchild in the spirit of Orthodoxy. So the choice of godparents should be treated with great responsibility. After all, in theory they should be your child’s second mother and father.

How to choose godparents?

Choosing a godfather for your child, find the person you completely trust. It might be your close friends or relatives with whom you have always enjoyed good relations. According to church tradition, if something happens to parents, godparents are required to replace their godson.

Actually, a boy needs only godfather, and a girl - only godmother.

According to the Orthodox Church laws:

* parents cannot be godparents of their child;
* husband and wife cannot be godparents of one child;
* children cannot be godparents (under the decree of the Holy Synod, 1836-1837 gg. godfather must be at least 15 years, and godmother of not less than 13 years), because they are not able to vouch for faith, and do not know the laws of the Orthodox Church;
* immoral and insane people cannot be godparents: first, because they do not deserve to be godparents, and second - because of illness cannot vouch for their faith, or teach faith;

What are the duties of godparents

Unfortunately, not every godparent imagine why this is the name of his new “job”. Visits to a godson and making gifts for angel day or a birthday are, of course, good. However, this is far from being the most important thing. Caring for a younger godson includes a lot.

First, it is a prayer for him. Learn praying God every day - before going to bed. It really is not so difficult. Ask the Lord health, rescue, assistance in raising your own children, godchild and relatives welfare. It would be good to arrange developing games with a baby, read him books. For example, many adults love reading children’s Bible.

In addition, godparents can greatly facilitate young mums’ life, who find it difficult to find time to rehearse with a child.

Godparents appearance

At the ceremony godparents should wear crosses consecrated by church. Do not wear high-heeled shoes, as christening lasts from 30 minutes to 2 hours and most of the time you will have to stand with a child in your arms. As for men, there are no clothing requirements for them, but shorts and t-shirts should be better abstained.

Preparations for the ceremony

Now ritual is performed mainly in temples. Only in exceptional cases, if, say, a child is very sick, the sacrament may be performed at home or in hospital.

In order to baptize a baby, we must first choose a church. Walk around the temples, listen to your feelings. But keep in mind that christening is not always done directly in the church. In large churches christening is usually splendid and solemn. But perhaps someone will prefer solitude and tranquility of small churches.

How to choose the day of christening?

In ancient times the sacrament often coincided with the greatest Christian holidays, such as Easter. But gradually christening turned into a family holiday. And now, on the contrary, the ritual is held almost every day, except for such great religious holidays, like Christmas, Easter, Trinity. In those days the church is usually crowded and the priests advise to postpone the ritual. You can come without an appointment in most churches. Typically, the sacrament of christening begins at 10 AM, immediately after the service. In addition, choosing the day of christening, try to avoid godmother’s critical days. The fact is that during this period a woman cannot be applied to the shrines: to kiss the cross, icons, and it is better not to enter the temple.

Preparation to christening

If you want to observe all the rules - begin preparations for the ceremony in advance. Godparents need to go to church to confess, repent of their sins and take communion. It is desirable (but not necessarily) to fast three or four days before the ceremony. But on the day of baptism, as well as before the communion, godparents cannot eat and have sex. At least one parent must know by heart the prayer “Creed”.

And one more thing: on an unwritten rule, godparents assume all costs for christening.

As we already mentioned, christening is the birth in a new sinless life. Taking a baby from the holy font, godparents take an absolutely pure being having no sins. White clothing is a symbol of purity, it is brought into the temple with a cross on a chain or thread.

The priest, godparents and a child are key players in the sacrament. According to the ancient customs, mother and father of a child should not be present during the commission of the sacrament. Although recently church became more loyal to the ban, and lets a child’s father, and sometimes mother, observing a ceremony with guests after reciting special prayers.

Questions and answers are repeated three times. After that godparents should read the “Symbol of Faith” - a summary of the foundations of Christian faith, which all Orthodox should know by heart. Then there comes anointing.

Then the priest cuts off a lock from a child’s head and commits the rite of christening - triple immersion in the font. If the baptismal room is warm, it is likely that your baby will be naked. It is believed that by adopting a baby in their arms after the ceremony, parents commit themselves to life to educate their godson in the Orthodox spirit, and answer for this education at the Last Court. If they cannot often see their godson, they should at least mention him in their daily prayers.

Prayer Creed

I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth, of all things visible and invisible.

And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the Only-begotten of the Father before all ages: Light from Light, true God from true God, begotten, not made, of one essence with the Father before all worlds.

For us men and for our salvation came down from heaven, and who took flesh from the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary, and became a man.

Crucified for us under Pontius Pilate, and suffered and buried. And resurrected on the third day, according to the Scriptures. And ascended into heaven, and sitteth at the right hand of the Father.

And come again with glory to judge the living and the dead, His kingdom will have no end.

And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver of Life, proceeds from the Father, the Father and the Son sopoklanyaemogo, and glorified, who spoke through the vices.

A single, holy, catholic and apostolic church.

I acknowledge one christening for forgiveness of sins.

I expect resurrection of dead and life of the next century.


Problems in new born babies Mon, 14 Sep 2009 10:52:17 +0000 admin Recently, experts conducted a small survey among kids in kindergarten: “What hurts you most?” The answers, in general, did not surprise - most children complained to their bellies.

Unfortunately, kids cannot say exactly what they are concerned - the intestines, pancreas, or something else, so parents should carefully examine problems in new born babies  and respond quickly to the situation.

Problems in new born babies


After two or three weeks after discharge from the hospital, in addition to all existing concerns, you may receive another one - baby colic.

They display themselves as follows - during feeding or shortly after it a baby suddenly starts shrinking feet to the tummy, worries, and then abruptly turns red and screams.

Do not be strongly frustrated, in most cases, colic is not a disease, just your baby’s gastrointestinal tract adapts to new circumstances and learns working independently.

To avoid such problems, remember that during breastfeeding you should pay attention to what you eat, and renounce the use of products that enhance gas formation, such as cabbage and grapes.

Be sure to latch a baby to breast the right way and let him sucking as long as he wants, because “front” milk (first portions) is over-saturated with carbohydrates, which can contribute to gas formation.

If your baby still suffers from colic, put something warm to baby’s tummy or simply change his position in the crib to ease pain.

Food poisoning

Your baby is asking for a pot all the time and complains he has a stomach ache? One of possible causes - food poisoning. It occurs after eating low-quality products and causes sporadic general malaise, nausea, vomiting, spasmodic pain in the abdomen, frequent (more than 6-7 times a day) loose stool with undigested food particles or mucus, with greenish veins. In this case child’s pulse becomes more frequent, skin grows pale, temperature rises.

In this case you should wash a baby’s stomach: give him to drink several glasses of warm water and irritate the tongue’s root until vomiting. In case if diarrhea lasts for several hours, immediately call your doctor.

Infectious diarrhea

Any stool disorder is called diarrhea. It can be simple and infectious. Simple diarrhea in children is caused by overeating, violations of terms or rules of complementary foods introduction, often a reaction to unfamiliar products. Infectious diarrhea appears due to toxins or microbes in gastrointestinal tract. Poisons that give birth to organisms and damages of digestive tract cause the disease. Infectious diarrhea begins 6-48 hours after microbes getting in the body.

Intestinal poisoning can occur if you drink water from the tap or fresh unboiled milk. Poor quality kefir or yogurt, stale eggs, cakes and sausages, poorly cleaned or washed vegetables and greens - all these products are dangerous.

Pay attention to the symptoms that accompany diarrhea. First, your child may become listless, he no longer sits or lies, refuses to eat, then his temperature can raise and a few hours later diarrhea or vomiting begins.

When you notice such problems in new born babies, you should call a pediatrician as quickly as possible, so that he would appreciate the condition. A baby with a slight poisoning is left at home and prescribed a treatment. The most important thing in the acute period of illness - replenishment of fluid loss from vomiting and diarrhea. The main thing - in any case do not give a lot of fluid at once (it can cause vomiting). Give a teaspoonful every 5-10 minutes.

“Acute abdomen”

Often pain in stomach is a sign of the disease requiring immediate diagnosis and emergency intervention. This state is called “acute abdomen”. It is accompanied by bouts of severe pain, which can be either constant or spasmodic, “spilled” or local. The cause may be ileus, acute appendicitis, peritonitis, perforated ulcers of stomach and intestines. “Acute abdomen” requires immediate hospitalization and surgery, as it represents a danger to a child’s life.

Acute abdominal disease also causes dizziness, growing abdominal distension, marked weakness, lethargy, pallor, cold sweat. In case of “acute abdomen” it is absolutely contraindicated to give your child pain relievers, because it “erases” clinical symptoms and complicates the diagnosis, massaging the abdomen, applying heat to the abdomen, force-feed a child, do an enema.

To avoid problems in new born babies associated with tummy diseases, observe the following rules: - Children under 3 years should not stay long in the sun - food must be neutral, that is, excluding exotic food and ethnic dishes. Fruits and vegetables should be washed well before use, use only bottled water.

Abdominal pain - a symptom of various diseases of the abdominal cavity. The causes of many unpleasant sensations are numerous. Some of the most frequent: food poisoning, acute gastritis, parasitic infestation, dysentery, biliary dyskinesia, acute appendicitis. Unfortunately, young children cannot precisely determine the place of pain, and it is difficult to diagnose it. In acute abdominal pain one should not be given painkillers, because when arresting unpleasant sensations further differential diagnosis is hampered. Thermal procedures (hot-water bottles, baths, etc.) are strictly forbidden.

Maternity leave: 140 days and nights Mon, 14 Sep 2009 10:23:57 +0000 admin For the first time a woman-mother’s rights were enshrined in Convention on Protection of Maternity June 4, 1952 at the General Conference of International Labor Organization in Geneva. According to article 3 of the Convention, the minimum period of maternity leave was not less than 12 weeks, ie 6 weeks before birth and 6 after. This is an international standard that defines the minimum time for vacation. But, on the basis of the same article, “the period of compulsory maternity leave is established by legislation of each country”. In addition, it is the law of each country that determines the size of child allowances.

Maternity leave. Motherhood business

Length of maternity leave depends on culture of the country. Namely - religion, traditions, social policy and changing demographics of jobs. For example, in Scandinavian countries, the result of social policies aimed at increasing birth rate, was a 96-week (in Sweden) paid maternity leave.

“Length of maternity leave depends on socio-economic conditions in the country. Sweden is one of the few countries with a government budget surplus, allowing the Swedes paying the highest taxes in the EU - 50,5% of GDP. The money goes to social needs, including children’s benefit “.

In Norway, parents have a choice - 44 weeks of maternity leave, during which they are paid an allowance of 100% of salary, or 54 weeks with payment of 80% salary.

Japanese women can go to a paid maternity leave for a year. To support families with children, many companies provide their female employees with additional benefits. For example, “Fuji Xerox”, in addition to a legitimate child care year, pays also another six months of maternity leave to young mothers.

In Iceland, according to statistics, there is the highest fertility in Europe. You bet! At the birth of a child a family receives 25 thousand euros, plus 36 weeks of paid maternity leave (80% of salary).

Brazilian mothers also may be called lucky. They are given 24 weeks to care for a child with pay.

Maternity leave. The right to be a mom

We must consider not only financial opportunities of states, but also race, especially genetics and habitat. Legal factor is closely linked with these indicators. On the basis of geneticists and biologists findings, lawyers determine a reasonable time for both parties - employers and employees.

Maternity leave. There is no limit to perfection

One hundred years ago France was the first country in Europe that faced the problem of population reduction. Since then, almost every government enacted laws that improve conditions for birth of children and guarantee mothers preservation of jobs at the time of care for a newborn. Now France has something to be proud of.

Sociologists have called French women “European champions” by number of children: every woman has on average 2 children. This is despite the fact that in France 87% of women of working age are employed. There is no question of choice between children and career. Maternity leave is 16 weeks with pay. After 16 weeks a mother has the right to go to work or take a maternity leave for three years, but without pay. However, she will receive a monthly child allowance of 390 euros for 3 years. It is expected that shortly after the birth of third child they will pay 1000 euros a month during a year. There are additional benefits: benefits for leave to prepare a child for school. Kindergartens for children older than 3 years are working for free. French women have an opportunity to choose whether to work all day or just a few hours. It is not surprising that France has become an international benchmark in the fight against zero-fertility.

Each country has its own legal system developed in different ways. Some organizations can afford senbding a staff member to maternity leave for a long time and then pay for her further training. Durability of maternity leave and benefits are set by law. While, for example, in the United States there is no paid maternity leave. Employers find it unprofitable to let employees go. And often while hiring women they ask: when are you going to give birth?

In Taiwan, a woman can go to a paid maternity leave only for 8 weeks. So many women go to the hospital straight from work.

An American mother can only rely on medical insurance, which guarantees her 6-8 weeks of compensation for a “short-term loss of efficiency.” The further fate of a woman is completely dependent on her employer, the company’s traditions and relationships in it. Even the receipt of unpaid annual leave in America is rare. So much for emancipation!

Mothers in Germany are a little more lucky than American. A pregnant woman is forbidden to work during 6 weeks before birth and 8 after, while all this time she gets a full salary. Child allowances differ on the level of the land. For example, in Bavaria and Saxony allowance is unchanged for three years, in remaining lands it is reduced by the 3rd year of leave.

Maternity leave. Born by revolution

Duration of maternity leave is affected by overall political literacy of population. We are talking not only of those who make the law, but also about those who make their claims in respect of the law.

For example, in Israel, MPs from the filing of women’s public organizations have increased paid maternity leave from 14 to 16 weeks. The law was adopted unanimously, despite objections of Ministry of Finance. And if a woman gives birth to twins, leave is extended by 17 weeks!

Maternity leave. Father’s work

The struggle for equal rights for women and men in the EU countries will provide fathers with an opportunity to go on maternity leave possibly within a year. After giving birth, women often have to put an end to their career. And today, many business women are much more successful their their male counterparts. Maternity leave for fathers is a good chance for climbers.

In a Japanese city of Ota newly made fathers are sent to maternity leave compulsively! A Japanese man is taking care of a child during 40 days, while receiving 100 per cent salary. Moreover, after returning to work an employee must write a report about how he cared about his child and how he feels in the father’s role. Thus, city authorities are struggling with low birth rates - just 1.29 children per couple.

A father from Norway was the first to receive a parental leave. Norwegian law gives men the right to take a 6-week maternity leave. In addition, parents may choose to distribute maternity leave among themselves. This feature gives equal rights to both parents in terms of their own careers. Israel recently passed a law allowing fathers to go on maternity leave for 16 weeks, as well as women.

Fetal development Fri, 11 Sep 2009 10:50:48 +0000 admin Every pregnant woman wants to know what is happening in her body, how her baby grows and develops, whether there are any dangers on his way. This is provided by a monthly prenatal visits to the doctor and various fetal development diagnostic studies. Ultrasonography is the most informative method of investigation that sought to identify abnormal fetal growth.

Fetus and its relationship with the mother’s body

Fetus is a growing organism, beginning with the ninth week of fetal development until birth. Before the ninth week this organism is called a fetus or embryo. A normal pregnancy lasts 40 weeks plus or minus two weeks. Gynecologists divide these 40 weeks into three terms: I trimester - up to 12 weeks, II - 12-24 weeks, III - from 24 weeks before birth.

Fetus is inextricably linked to the mother’s body, throughout pregnancy there is a system of mother - placenta - fetus operating. Mother’s body provides optimal conditions for fetal development. Mother and fetus collaboration involves nervous, endocrine, immune and other mechanisms. Mother’s body and fetus begin interacting most fully after placenta development, which allows fetus adapting to changing conditions in maternal organism.

Fetal development in the first trimester of pregnancy (up to 12 weeks)

In the end of the fourth week of pregnancy an embryo is implanted in uterus mucous membrane, where primordia of organs and membranes is formed. In the end of the eighth week of pregnancy length of an embryo reaches approximately 3 cm, it is already possible to distinguish head, torso (it is equal to the length of head), rudiments of limbs, eyes, nose, mouth. Microscopic structure of sex glands allows determining sex of the fetus.

In the end of the 12th week fetus reaches a length of 9 cm, weight - 40 g. Limbs are clearly defined, formation of external genitalia begins, x-rays allow seeing the points of ossification in a cartilage skeleton.

Fetal development in the second trimester (12-24 weeks)

During 16th week, the length of fetus reaches about 16 cm, weight - approximately 120 g, sex is clearly visible, skin is thin, smooth, reddish, without subcutaneous fat, face is almost formed, ossification of skull begins. In connection with formation of muscular system, activity of limb movement is growing, there are weak respiratory movements.

In the end of the 20th week fetus reaches a length of 25 cm, weight - 300 g. Movement is so active that mother feels them, and fetal heartbeat can be heard. Skin of fetus, starting with head and face is covered with prenatal hairs and entire body - eldest lubricant, consisting of a mixture of fat-like secretion of sebaceous glands with scales of skin surface layer. The first cal - meconium is formed in the gut. Subcutaneous tissue is formed in the lower abdomen.

In the end of 24th week the length of fetus is 30 cm, weight - 700 g. The internal organs are so mature that sometimes, under appropriate conditions, fetus may be viable for premature birth.

Fetal development in the third trimester of pregnancy (from 24 weeks until birth)

By the 30th week, the length of fetus is about 35 cm, weight - about 1 kg. Fetus looks like an «old man» because of poor development of subcutaneous fat, whole body is covered with prenatal hairs, ears are very soft, nails do not reach fingertips. In girls, large labia do not close small, boys’ testicles are not descended into the scrotum, navel is located closer to the pubis. Fetus is premature and unripe, that is unsustainable, as functions of its internal organs and systems are not perfect. After birth, survival of such fetus is small and is possible only under especially favorable conditions.

On the 34th week fetus has a length of about 40 cm, weight - about 1,6 kg. Fetus is viable, but requires special care conditions.

On 38-40th weeks fetus acquires the characteristics of maturity: its length is 45 cm, weight - about 2,5 kg. «An old man» look is lost due developed subcutaneous tissue, skin becomes pink, navel is located in the usual place. Fetus becomes fully viable.

Fetal development. Signs of fetus maturity

Full-term fetus under adverse conditions of intrauterine development may have signs of immaturity and vice versa, aborted fetus may be born mature, so the concept of preterm and maturity do not always coincide.

Fetal length is an important sign of maturity: not less than 47 cm; and weight should be not less than 2,5 kg. Signs of maturity also include navel position: it should be positioned midway between the sternum and the pubis. Other important factors: state of skin (pink), lack of «senile» atrophy, development of subcutaneous fat, presence of prenatal hairs only on shoulders and upper back, hair condition of hair, nails and other symptoms.

With a weight of 4 to 5 kg fetus is consirered large, more than 5 kg - giant. Weight increase may be associated with features of mother’s nutrition, hereditary factors, number of births, mother’s illness (for example, diabetes often causes a large fetus), etc. A newborn, which has great weight must be carefully examined to avoid possible diseases.

Balanced diet, locomotor activity, continuous monitoring of fetal condition by a women’s clinic doctor are a guarantee of a full-term healthy baby birth.

Prenatal vitamins Fri, 11 Sep 2009 10:14:32 +0000 admin Prenatal vitamins for pregnant women are supplements that a woman can take every day, to be sure she gets all necessary vitamins, nutrients in the right quantities. They are taken to make pregnancy proceeding without any problems and complications. It is important that a woman would constantly consult with her doctor and go to the survey, because the body cannot get some vitamins. However, before taking any prenatal vitamins you should consult with the doctor and take them only after they are prescribed by a doctor. The fact is that there are some supplements that can be very dangerous for pregnant women. That is why we must be very careful and consult to a doctor timely.

First of all, nutrition of pregnant women should be correct. This means that every day your diet should include proteins, fats and carbohydrates in a certain proportion. Of course, proteins are in the first place, they are the building blocks for child body. Most adults do not need supplements and prenatal vitamins, as they receive all necessary materials from a balanced diet fully and adequately, but the fact is that a pregnant woman should receive more. She needs additional nutrients, especially folic acid and iron, as a pregnant woman, except her body, should provide her growing child with vitamins and nutrients. But we must be cautious in use of vitamins and supplements, one must ensure the diet diet does not include potentially dangerous amounts of these additives.

Vitamin A is one of the most toxic prenatal vitamins women take. Pregnant women should be especially careful in use of this vitamin. Therefore, the best way to take vitamin A - to take it only in the form of beta-carotene. Beta-carotene is a nutrient located inside fruits and vegetables. In the body, beta-carotene is converted to vitamin A. If pregnant women take supplements of vitamin A in two and a half times higher than recommended doses (more than 10 000 ME / day), then they have two and a half times higher risk of child’s defects, compared with pregnant women not taking high doses of vitamin A. Moreover, women taking vitamin A in large quantities have five times higher risk of giving birth to a child with a neural crest defect, cleft lip, heart disease or brain disorders. As vitamin A is involved in the growth and development of a healthy fetus, then its too high content, even accumulated in mother’s body before conception, can lead to devastating consequences.

In fact, excess of vitamin A is the greatest danger during two weeks before conception and during first two months of pregnancy. Rate of its consumption for pregnant women is approximately 2500 ME. If vitamin A is taken separately, and one also adds multivitamins to it, you can easily bring the daily intake up to 10 000 ME. Before pregnancy dose of vitamin A should not exceed 5000 ME.

Multivitamin prenatal vitamins are also needed, as the body of a pregnant woman needs to increase their content, and consumption of only vegetables and fruits cannot fully satisfy this need. Some prenatal vitamins are made specifically for pregnant women and contain vitamins and trace elements in perfect proportion. But before you use these drugs, you should consult a physician at the first consultation. The doctor can check the body on a deficit or surplus of vitamins, compose a diet and determine whether you want to improve reception of certain vitamins, if they are not enough for a growing child. Most doctors advise and prescribe their pregnant patients to go through a course of taking folic acid and a certain group of prenatal vitamins during the first trimester.

During the first three months of pregnancy, when all child’s organs are formed, it needs optimal nutrition. Even in the earliest days of pregnancy fetus is rapidly changing and evolving. This is exactly the time when most women do not even know they are pregnant. For this reason, wanting to get pregnant, it is very important to adhere to proper nutrition and healthy lifestyle, avoiding alcohol and smoking, take extra prenatal vitamins and minerals, especially folic acid. This vitamin has been shown to reduce the risk of having a child with a serious illness - spina bifida, but for this you need to take folic acid from the date of conception.

Most doctors prescribe folic acid for pregnant women, because folic acid is essential for proper child development and health. Folic acid is particularly important for proper brain development. Doctors also advise pregnant women taking iron supplements. This helps avoiding anemia, which in mild form can manifest itself in women both during and after pregnancy. Most pregnant women feel tired, especially in last months - this is another reason to prevent iron deficiency.