For the first time a woman-mother’s rights were enshrined in Convention on Protection of Maternity June 4, 1952 at the General Conference of International Labor Organization in Geneva. According to article 3 of the Convention, the minimum period of maternity leave was not less than 12 weeks, ie 6 weeks before birth and 6 after. This is an international standard that defines the minimum time for vacation. But, on the basis of the same article, “the period of compulsory maternity leave is established by legislation of each country”. In addition, it is the law of each country that determines the size of child allowances.
Maternity leave. Motherhood business
Length of maternity leave depends on culture of the country. Namely - religion, traditions, social policy and changing demographics of jobs. For example, in Scandinavian countries, the result of social policies aimed at increasing birth rate, was a 96-week (in Sweden) paid maternity leave.
“Length of maternity leave depends on socio-economic conditions in the country. Sweden is one of the few countries with a government budget surplus, allowing the Swedes paying the highest taxes in the EU - 50,5% of GDP. The money goes to social needs, including children’s benefit “.
In Norway, parents have a choice - 44 weeks of maternity leave, during which they are paid an allowance of 100% of salary, or 54 weeks with payment of 80% salary.
Japanese women can go to a paid maternity leave for a year. To support families with children, many companies provide their female employees with additional benefits. For example, “Fuji Xerox”, in addition to a legitimate child care year, pays also another six months of maternity leave to young mothers.
In Iceland, according to statistics, there is the highest fertility in Europe. You bet! At the birth of a child a family receives 25 thousand euros, plus 36 weeks of paid maternity leave (80% of salary).
Brazilian mothers also may be called lucky. They are given 24 weeks to care for a child with pay.
Maternity leave. The right to be a mom
We must consider not only financial opportunities of states, but also race, especially genetics and habitat. Legal factor is closely linked with these indicators. On the basis of geneticists and biologists findings, lawyers determine a reasonable time for both parties - employers and employees.
Maternity leave. There is no limit to perfection
One hundred years ago France was the first country in Europe that faced the problem of population reduction. Since then, almost every government enacted laws that improve conditions for birth of children and guarantee mothers preservation of jobs at the time of care for a newborn. Now France has something to be proud of.
Sociologists have called French women “European champions” by number of children: every woman has on average 2 children. This is despite the fact that in France 87% of women of working age are employed. There is no question of choice between children and career. Maternity leave is 16 weeks with pay. After 16 weeks a mother has the right to go to work or take a maternity leave for three years, but without pay. However, she will receive a monthly child allowance of 390 euros for 3 years. It is expected that shortly after the birth of third child they will pay 1000 euros a month during a year. There are additional benefits: benefits for leave to prepare a child for school. Kindergartens for children older than 3 years are working for free. French women have an opportunity to choose whether to work all day or just a few hours. It is not surprising that France has become an international benchmark in the fight against zero-fertility.
Each country has its own legal system developed in different ways. Some organizations can afford senbding a staff member to maternity leave for a long time and then pay for her further training. Durability of maternity leave and benefits are set by law. While, for example, in the United States there is no paid maternity leave. Employers find it unprofitable to let employees go. And often while hiring women they ask: when are you going to give birth?
In Taiwan, a woman can go to a paid maternity leave only for 8 weeks. So many women go to the hospital straight from work.
An American mother can only rely on medical insurance, which guarantees her 6-8 weeks of compensation for a “short-term loss of efficiency.” The further fate of a woman is completely dependent on her employer, the company’s traditions and relationships in it. Even the receipt of unpaid annual leave in America is rare. So much for emancipation!
Mothers in Germany are a little more lucky than American. A pregnant woman is forbidden to work during 6 weeks before birth and 8 after, while all this time she gets a full salary. Child allowances differ on the level of the land. For example, in Bavaria and Saxony allowance is unchanged for three years, in remaining lands it is reduced by the 3rd year of leave.
Maternity leave. Born by revolution
Duration of maternity leave is affected by overall political literacy of population. We are talking not only of those who make the law, but also about those who make their claims in respect of the law.
For example, in Israel, MPs from the filing of women’s public organizations have increased paid maternity leave from 14 to 16 weeks. The law was adopted unanimously, despite objections of Ministry of Finance. And if a woman gives birth to twins, leave is extended by 17 weeks!
Maternity leave. Father’s work
The struggle for equal rights for women and men in the EU countries will provide fathers with an opportunity to go on maternity leave possibly within a year. After giving birth, women often have to put an end to their career. And today, many business women are much more successful their their male counterparts. Maternity leave for fathers is a good chance for climbers.
In a Japanese city of Ota newly made fathers are sent to maternity leave compulsively! A Japanese man is taking care of a child during 40 days, while receiving 100 per cent salary. Moreover, after returning to work an employee must write a report about how he cared about his child and how he feels in the father’s role. Thus, city authorities are struggling with low birth rates - just 1.29 children per couple.
A father from Norway was the first to receive a parental leave. Norwegian law gives men the right to take a 6-week maternity leave. In addition, parents may choose to distribute maternity leave among themselves. This feature gives equal rights to both parents in terms of their own careers. Israel recently passed a law allowing fathers to go on maternity leave for 16 weeks, as well as women.
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