Fetal development. Critical periods during pregnancy

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Fetal development critical periods - are certain periods of pregnancy, when a risk of its termination is the highest. It is determined, that these terms are more or less common for women, included in these or that risk groups


You can distinguish most typical reasons of termination of pregnancy for
each critical fetal development period.
I trimester (first 3,5 months of pregnancy). The first fetal development critical period
falls on 2nd-3rd weeks of pregnancy, when a woman may be unaware of a new life,
developing in her organism. On this term ovoimplantation takes place, i.e. its
implantation into endometrium. The process of implantation can be broken:
-
while anomalies of uterus organization (infantilism, bicornuate uterus,
wall in an uterine cavity);
-
while traumas of endometrium as a result of abortions
and inflammational diseases (chronic endometritis);
-
while hysteromyoma;
-
while scar on uterus after Cesarean section and other operations.
Another reason of termination of pregnancy on the earliest fetal development terms - are chromosomal and genetic anomalies of embryo development. A peculiar natural selection of
future posterity takes place.
Another critical period falls on 8-12 weeks of pregnancy. During this
period placenta starts developing, and a general reason of termination in these
terms - are hormonal disorders.
II trimester. Fetal development critical period - 18-22 weeks of pregnancy - a period of
active uterus growth. On this stage anomalies of placenta position (low insertion of placenta)
and cervical incompetence are dangerous. In these terms a main reason of
termination are sexually transmitted diseases. If infectious agents (clamydia,
toxoplasms, herpesvirus, and also cytomegalic inclusion diseases and roseola)
can lead to serious defects of fetus development on early terms of pregnancy,
then in II trimester of pregnancy they, first of all, lead to placenta
disfunction, cause infection of fetal integument, premature amniorrhea and
miscarriage.
During pregnancy cervix serves as a peculiar “lock”, maintaining
pregnancy in uterine cavity. Cervical incompetence - is a pathologic
condition of cervix, when it cannot fulfil this function. Under the influence
of gravity, fetus is lowering itself little by little, cervix opens and a
miscarriage takes place. To remove cervical incompetence, it`s necessary to put
in a stitch on cervix until critical term comes.
III trimester. Another stage of intense fetal development and uterus falls
on 28-32 weeks. Disturbance of pregnancy development during these terms can
cause such complications, like late gestational toxicosis, placental insufficiency
and abruption of placenta. These conditions can lead to antenatal death of fetus.
In the end of second - beginning of third trimesters multiple fetation
is often terminated prematurely.
Babies, born in terms 28032 weeks, are small premature infants
and requre much efforts, medicines and special equipment for nursing.

Doctors usually speak about critical fetal development periods, when
they face habitual non-carrying of pregnancy. Women, suffering from habitual
non-carrying, should be especially cautious during described critical periods,
and also days of supposed menstruations and in terms, when previous
terminations of pregnancies happened: exclude serious physical load, intimate
relations, exercising, try to avoid nervous tensions. In a number of cases it`s
better for a woman to stay in a maternity obstetric service during
critical periods, where doctors will be able to carry out prophylaxis and
treatment of mentioned complications, and in case of necessity - render first о.



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