Healthy baby development (from 0 to 4 years)

Growth & Development Add comments

Normal, full-value baby shold not only gain weight and grow timely, but also display emotions and do certain movements. If all these functions appear in time, this means a baby`s brain and motor apparatus are developing correctly


Development like mechanism
Normal, full-value baby shold not only gain weight and grow timely, but also
display emotions and do certain movements. If all these functions appear in time,
this means a baby`s brain and motor apparatus are developing correctly. So, if
you notice your baby`s development of movements and psyche that do not correspond
to his age, you need to find out whether this hypogenesis is caused by in-born
defect of central nervous system or by lack of parental attention.
The matter is that both nervous and immune system of a baby are developing as
he`s growing, that`s why your baby`s intellect depends on his living conditions
in many aspects. For example, a baby needs communication yet before birth, and
when a baby is born, communication is just necessary for him. That`s why children,
who couldn`t stay with their parents for some reasons, are backward (physically
and mentally) those children, who grow in families, providing them not only good
care (feeding, bathing etc.), but also full-value communication, like with equal
family members.
Intellectual development of a baby depends also on schedule of upbringing and
care, provided by parents. For example, babies, who are always swaddled in blankets
(with legs and arms), start crawling and taking objects with hands lately. There`s
another extreme: parents think they can hasten their baby`s development. Of course,
you can teach baby standing or sitting earlier through training. However, these
early successes are not useful for him, but even harmful. To upbring a harmonious
personality, you just need to observe certain rules of upbringing, schedule of
feeding and sleep. Provide him with toys, talk to him all the time, take care
of his skills (according to his age), and in case of retardation, apply for a
doctor immediately.
This scheme will help you to understand the way your baby is developing. While
learning it, don`t forget that every baby is individual and develops according
to his own schedule, and this is normal.
A baby was born!

A newborn baby is physically helpless, his motions are uncertain. By the moment
of birth he already has food reflex, whis he dispalys searching for a mother`s
breast and suckling it. Defence and attention reflexes are also well-noticed.
Defence reflex is displayed through winking, attention one - through eye motion
towards source of light. However, a baby still cannot look after objects. If you
touch a baby`s palm with your finger, he will catch it. In this age a baby can
hang holding a mother`s or father`s thumbs. He sleeps in a frog`s pose: lying
on back, with arms bended in elbows and raised up, and legs bended in knees and
pulled apart.

What should worry parents? Baby doesn`t suckle, doesn`t react to light, sleeps
with arms and legs, stretched out along body.
1 month.
 
In this age a baby notices bright objects. He starts or winks, if he hears an
acute sound, tries to listen to things, happening around. First uncertain sounds
appear - cooing, first smile. A baby can hold head vertically during several seconds,
in general lying on belly. He stretches himself, tries to push away and crawl.
If you hold him under his arms, he will be able to set his feet against support
(for example, floor). Since the moment of birth and until 2 motns a baby sleeps
about 20 hours per day and night.

What should worry parents? Baby doesn`t react to acute sounds, sleeps little
(stay awake between 2-3 feedings) or to the contrary too much (when you have to
awake him to feed), eats badly (eats not enough).

 
2 months.
 
A baby looks after moving objects well, turns head while hearing human voice,
stops suckling, if you show him a bright object. Lying on belly, he lifts his
head and raises chest a little, for 1-1,5 minutes holds his head. If you hold
him under his arms, he will be able to stand, but still with bended legs. Ability
to stay in hanging position and striving for crawling dissapear. He smiles in
response to a smile and cooes more distinctly already. A baby tries to hold objects
using his whole hand, and his motions are not so confused and uncertain, as earlier.
What should worry parents? A baby doesn;t display emotions, is indifferent to
utward things, doesn`t react to close people`s smile, doesn`t hold bjects with
hand and eat not enough.
3 months.
 
Staying in vertical position, a baby can concentrate his look and look after
an object during 5-6 minutes. Now he can catch direstion of a sound clearly and
turns head towards this sound. A baby doesn`t already search for breast, but opens
his mouth when it approaches. Lying on belly, he can rise, leaning on his elbows
and forearms, tries to sit (if you support his rump), turn on side from back,
hold head. His arms` motions become free and expedient: he brings objects to mouth,
reach for toys, clanks with rattles, claps his hands and pulls them to mouth.
Now a baby recognizes his mom, starts smiling to parents and close people. He
laughs, when he`s contented, and cries, if something goes wrong. A baby is already
cooeing in every possible way and listens to music with pleasure.
What should worry parents? By the end of the third month a baby cannot hold his
head, doesn`t look after moving objects, doesn`s smile and change expression,
is frightened by appearance of something unusual, doesn`t coordinate movements.
Let`s sum up. What does a baby under 3 months need? Attention of parents and
close people. He likes when his parents take him in arms, talk and communicate
to him, tell about things happening around, read books. Teach your baby to sleeping
in his own cot. In this age a baby needs rattles, they should be hung above his
cot, so that he could firstly strike them, and then catch with his hands.
4 months
Lying on back, a baby looks after moving objects, touches mother`s breast. Now,
when he sees an unknown face, he can become frightened or to the contrary interested.
Rising himself on his arms, a baby leans only on his palms, turns to belly from
back, catches and strokes objects. He cooes longer, and melodious and laryngeal
sounds cab be heard in his “songs”. A baby expresses his displeasure through whimpering.
What should worry parents? A baby doesn`t turn to belly from back, doesn`t hold
objects and react to other people.
5 months.
 
A baby reacts to different peple in different ways. He catches objects with his
hands confidently and pulls them to moush also confidently. Now a baby can sit
well, holding something with his hands. If you take him under his arms, he will
be standing almost straight, not bending legs.
What should worry parents? A baby sits badly or doesn`t try to sit, doesn`t recognize
parents.
6 months.
 
A baby is already turning from belly to back and vice versa, from back to belly.
Now he can sit without support, tries to grabble. If you pull him up holding his
hands, he will stand, and if you support his chest - he will make first attempts
to step. A baby already catches objects with one hand, brandish with a rattle,
picks up a fallen toy, starts searhing for dissapeared objects. He can laugh,
whimper, cry and react to other people`s emotions. A baby tries to pronounce syllables,
he will call a mother - “ma”, and granny - “gra”.
What should worry parents? A baby cannot sit even with support.
7 months.
 
Beginning of little explorer`s way. A baby reaches for his reflection in the
mirror and surprises to it. Now he picks up a fallen bottle and draws it to mouth
by himself, stands on all fours, grabbles, sits, stands on knees, grasping railings
of his cot. If you support him under his arms, he will start stepping. His motions
become purposeful, for example, he can put an object from one hand to another,
ask parents to hold him, stretch arms towards mother, father. A baby starts repeating
syllables.
What should worry parents? A baby doesn`t turn to back from belly and vice versa,
it`s difficult for him to bring objects to mouth. He cannot bear his own weight,
leaning on feet. A baby isn`t glad to anything, doesn`t hug mother and father,
doesn`t look after moving objects, doesn`t show interest towards “cuckoo” game,
doesn`t babble.
Let`s sum up. What does a 4-7months baby need? He needs even more attention of
close people. A baby likes hugging parents, and you cannot deprive him of this
pleasure, as this way he tries to beat a feeling of fear in himself. Try to understand
his prattle, answer him with words and gestures. In this age a baby needs tough
toys, but his previous “friends”: rattles and rings are still useful for him.
8 months

A baby smiles to his reflection, searches for objects with his look, surprises
while seeing something new. He can sit himself and can lie from this position.
Now a baby can stand, supporting himself only with one hand, and if you support
him under his arms, he will make an attempt to walk. He tries to clap his hands.

What should worry parents? A baby doesn`t sit, doesn`t try to stand up ot cannot
stand for a long. He`s constantly in bad mood, he is not glad to toys or parents.
9 months.
 
Now a baby searches for a fallen or hidden object by himself already. He makes
attempts to stand without support and walk behind a chair (he holds a chair`s
back and moves it forward). If you support him by his hands, he will be able to
sit and stand on knees. A baby can already gather small objects, looks after falling
of objects. During eating he tries using … his finger. A baby starts mastering
gestures, for example, nods his head, trying to explain what he doesn`t want.

What should worry parents? A baby cannot step, cannot stand without support and
find a hidden object.

 
10 months.
 
A baby stands and stands up without support and tries to move, leaning on one
hand. He learns to imitate adults` motions, opens and shuts doors, takes small
objects with two fingers. A baby names objects with separate, but the same reductive
words or syllables. Now he knows how to fulfil simple requests and understands
prohibitions.

What should worry parents? A baby doesn`s stand, doesn`t try to walk, doesn`t
pronounce syllables.

 
11-12 months.
 
In the end of the 1st year of life (11-12 months) a baby can already put one
object on another, squats without support, bows without squatting to pick up an
object, walks well, leaning on one hand (11 months), makes first steps by himself
(12 months). He knows names of many objects, distinguishes parts of body, fufils
requests, pronounces separate words: mom, dad. Imitates actions of other people
with pleasure.
What should worry parents? In the age of 8-12 months a baby doesn`t grabble,
grabbles hardly or grabble towards only one side, cannot stand without support.
He doesn`t use gestures, for example doesn`t wave his hand to say good-bye, doesn`t
pronounce simple words. He cannot change a pose - stand on all fours from sitting
position, cannot take toys from box.
Let`s sum up. What does a 8-12 months baby need? A baby likes moving, playing
with adults, he requries attention, takes active part in all home matters. He
needs toys (for example, balls and mechanical toys) and space for active game
(room where a baby can move freely).
2nd year of life

A baby walks confidently, his vocabulary gets rich: now he pronounces separate
words (by 15-18 months), and then sentences of two, three words (by 18-24 months).
He distinguishes nomenclatures of close people: mom, dad, grandma, grandad. He
starts running, goes up and downstairs. Now he can take off some cloth by himself,
knows and shows where are nose, eyes. A baby takes objects using his thumb and
forefinger, learns drawing, examine pictures, is interested in communication with
coevals, obeys adults` requests.

What should worry parents? There`s no any clear word in a baby`s vocabulary,
he cannot fulfil a simple request, clasp his hands hardly, doesn`t walk by 18
months still. He expresses his needs through crying, is not worryied by parents`
absence.
Let`s sum up. What does a 2 years old baby need? And again the main thing for
your baby - your attention, so spend as much time with him as you can. Present
him a table, chair, bricks, a pyramid of 3-4 rings, glasses of different shapes.
Don`t forget about fluffy toys, objects for games in water, “household equipment”
(hammer, pegs, crockery). Buy toys for walks: bucket, shovel, cars.
2-3 years
A baby eats using a spoon, however, it`s not easy for him. He draws a lot, looks
through and examines books, recognizes objects on pictures, names colors, asks
adults endless questions, remembers simple poems and melodies. His vocabulary
is 250-300 words. A baby can feel sorry, be confused and proud of himself.
What should worry parents? A baby cannot move by himself, take off cloth, build
simple phrases, he mixes names of parts of body, shows no interest to other children.

Let`s sum up. What does a 3 years old baby need? It is important for him to feel
that parents are always ready to take part in his activity, that he`s the most
interesting person in the world for them. In this age a child feels love and dislike
of his close people acutely and forms his affections, which are kept for the whole
life. A baby should have things to take and carry: books, cars, toys. Show him
how to use a pastel crayon, big chalks and paper. Keep an illustrated book, where
simple actions are pictured, at hand and ask a baby showing and naming characters.
Teach your baby to construct objects, unscrew and screw up lids.

 
3-4 years

A baby starts using polysyllabic phrases actively, becomes curious. He tries
to draw a man and animals. A child likes loud outdoor games, fuss with kids and
adults, games with rules, dresses up with pleasure. You need to play a lot with
him, allow talking on the phone, communicate with other kids at home and during
walk. Look through photograph albums together and name known people, listen to
songs and sing them. Read fairy tales, poems and ask a baby to retell them. It`s
time to get various objects for outdoor games: mattress, pillows, balls, wall
bars.



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