Reasons of speech defects

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In great antiquity a Greek philosopher and doctor Hippocrates saw a reason of series of speech defects in cerebral affection. But scientific confirmation to this fact was received only in 1876, when a French doctor Paul Broca showed presence of a substance, affecting speech, and connected speech defect with its lesion


In great antiquity a Greek philosopher and doctor Hippocrates
saw a reason of series of speech defects in cerebral affection. But scientific
confirmation to this fact was received only in 1876, when a French doctor Paul
Broca showed presence of a substance, affecting speech, and connected speech
defect with its lesion.
In 1874 they discovered the connection between speech
understanding and safety of a certain section of brain. Since that time
connection between speech defects and changes of certain sections of
brain-cortex was proved.
 
Such pathologic changes in brain-cortex appear as a
result of various negative influences (infections, traumas, intoxications) on
a
child central nervous system and his organism on the whole. They distinguish
pre-natal pathology, defect during delivery (natal pathology) and influence of
harmful factors after birth (post-natal pathology). Pre-natal defects are
caused by mother`s diseases during pregnancy, taking medicines, radiation,
vibration, drinking alcohol and smoking. Immunologic incompatibility between
mother`s and fetus`s blood according to rhesus-factor and blood group can play
a certain role. Birth pathology appears during lingering or impetuous
childbirth, tight loop of cord, Cesarean section, wrong position of fetus.
 
Most often, boys suffer from speech defects. They
discovered a difference between development of right and left (speech) cerebral
hemispheres. Left cerebral hemisphere in general fulfills speech function, and
right - visual-spatial. Boys` right cerebral hemisphere is developing quicker,
while girls` left cerebral hemisphere (speech one) is developing quicker, as a
result girls` speech development takes place earlier.
 
Early organic cerebral affections, combined with
negative conditions of upbringing and environment during first years of baby life,
play
a big role in appearance of children speech defects. It is known, that normal
pre-speech development during first year of life, having an important meaning
for forming of speech function, is possible only while adequate interaction
between mother and baby. Various signals, coming in from outer world, first of
all speech ones, - are a base for speech function development. An adult person,
communicating with a baby, is a source of them. In connection with this, role
of speech environment and communication is very important, and their lack can
be one of the main reasons, which affect speech formation.
 
Communication should be important for normal child
speech development, take place on the background of positive emotions and
induce him to answer. It`s not enough for a baby just hearing sounds (radio,
TV), first of all, direct communication with adults is necessary.
 
Child speech development is delayed and affected while
negative external conditions: lack of positive emotional environment, too noisy
environment. Speech is developed due to imitation, that`s why some speech
defects (roughness of pronunciation, stuttering, defect of speech tempo) can be
caused by imitation of family members. Speech defects often appear as a result
of various psychic traumas (fright, separation from close people, traumatizing
psychic situation in family). Speech defects also appear under the influence of
a child`s general physical weakening, prematurity, rachitis, different defects
of metabolism.
 
Hereditary factors also have certain meaning.
Hereditary load among stuttering children is 17,5%. Role of hereditary factors
in appearance of dysgraphia and dyslexia is also marked.
 
There`re critical periods in speech function
development, which are displayed in heightened vulnerability of speech activity
nervous mechanisms. The first critical period is 1-2 years of life. In this age
most intense development of cortical language zones takes place, in particular,
Broca`s centers. Any negative factors can affect child speech development.
 
The second critical period is 3 years, when continuous
speech is developed strongly. Some unbalance in work of central nervous system
leads to change of behavior (obstinacy, negativism). In connection with this,
nervous system vulnerability increases, and stuttering and delay of speech
development can appear as a result.
 
The third critical period is 6-7 years - beginning of
writing development. Load on central nervous system increases. Any child`s
defects of speech function are displayed most during these critical periods,
moreover, new disorders can appear too.
 
Incorrect structure of vocal apparatus plays a big
role in appearance of speech disorders. These are palate anomalies (high, flat,
shredded), defects of maxilla and low jaw development (malocclusion), short-cut
frenum of tongue and upper lip.
 
Finally, there`s such negative factor, like
educational and social abandonment. Speech is a social phenomenon, it is
developed only under influence of child`s environment. If a child does not
receive enough speech communication, then his own speech development will be
delayed too. Parents are glad, if a child is playing with toys for a long time
and does not disturb them. But they should not forget to read something to
their baby, look some picture and ask questions about it, learn some verse
every day. If a child is obviously backward his coevals in speech development,
then it is necessary to consult a speech therapist and neuropathologist before
a child is 3 years old.


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